The cMYC(MYC)/IGH translocation t(8;14), and the variant forms t(2;8)(p13;q24) and t(8;22)(q24;q11), are found in Burkitt’s lymphoma and mature B-cell or Burkitt’s type Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)1.
The t(8;14) is the most common and is found in approximately 85% of patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma2. While translocation breakpoints on chromosome 14 are clustered to a narrow region 5′ to the intron enhancer of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, the breakpoints on chromosome 8 can occur more than 340kb upstream of MYC, with no preferential site3. The translocation brings MYC into close proximity to the IgH enhancer and results in the up-regulation of MYC4. Over expression of the transcription factor stimulates gene amplification resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation, which usually occurs in the late event of tumour progression5.
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1. Berger R, Bernheim A, Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1982;7(3):231-44
2. Hoffman, Ronald (2009). Hematology : basic principles and practice (5th ed. ed.). Philadelphia, PA: ChurchillLivingstone/Elsevier. pp. 1304–1305
3. Joos et al., Human Molecular Genetics 1992;1(8):625-32
4. Erikson J et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80(3):820-4
5. Shou et al., PNAS 2000;97(1):228-33